Apa benda tu chipsets
Posted 08 August 2002 - 09:15 AM
Blh tak tolong bagi penjelasan kepada saya apa itu chipsets?
Posted 08 August 2002 - 12:14 PM
A chipset is a group of microchips designed to work and sold as a unit in performing one or more related functions. A typical chipset is the Intel 430HX PCIset for the Pentium microprocessor, a two-chip set that provides a Peripheral Component Interconnect bus controller and is designed for a business computer that "optimizes CPU, PCI and ISA transactions for faster, smoother multimedia performance in video conferencing, playback, and capture applications." This chipset includes support for the Universal Serial Bus (USB).
Every computer purchase, every motherboard upgrade, every CPU buying decisions comes back to the same thing: the system chipset. If the CPU is the brain of your PC, the chipset is its heart. It controls the flow of bits that travel between the CPU, system memory, and the motherboard bus. Efficient data transfers, fast expansion bus support, and advanced power management features are just a few of the things the system chipset is reponsible for.
Slot 1 AGP
- Slot 1 AGP Chipsets
- Intel 440BX AGP Chipset - 66/100 MHz Front Side Bus
- Aladdin Pro II / M1621/ M15X3 AGP Chipset - 66/100 MHz Front Side Bus
- Intel 440LX AGP Chipset - 66 MHz Front Side Bus
- Intel 440EX AGP Chipset - 66 MHz Front Side Bus
Socket 7 AGP Chipsets
- ALI Aladdin V AGP Chipset - 66/100 MHz Front Side Bus
- VIA Apollo mVP3 AGP Chipset 66/100 MHz Front Side Bus
- SiS 5591/92 AGP Chipset - 66/75/83 MHz Front Side Bus
- VIA Apollo VP3 AGP Chipset - 66 MHz Front Side Bus
Socket 7 PCI Chipsets
- ALI Aladdin IV+ Chipset - 66/75/83 MHz Front Side Bus
- SiS 5581/82 AGP Chipset - 66/75 MHz Front Side Bus
- SiS 5597/98 Chipset - 66/75 MHz Front Side Bus
- VIA Apollo VP2 Chipset - 66/75 MHz Front Side Bus
Posted 08 August 2002 - 12:25 PM
A chipset or "PCIset" is a group of microcircuits that orchestrate the flow of data to and from key components of a PC. This includes the CPU itself, the main memory, the secondary cache and any devices situated on the ISA and PCI buses. The chipset also controls data flow to and from hard disks, and other devices connected to the IDE channels. While new microprocessor technologies and speed improvements tend to receive all the attention, chipset innovations are, in fact, equally important.
Although there have always been other chipset manufacturers - such as SIS, VIA and Opti - for many years Intel"s "Triton" chipsets were by far the most popular. Indeed, the introduction of the Intel Triton chipset caused something of a revolution in the motherboard market, with just about every manufacturer using it in preference to anything else. Much of this was down to the ability of the Triton to get the best out of both the Pentium processor and the PCI bus, together with its built-in master EIDE support, enhanced ISA bridge and ability to handle new memory technologies like EDO and SDRAM. However, the new PCI chipsets" potential performance improvements will only be realised when used in conjunction with BIOSes capable of taking full advantage of the new technologies on offer.
During the late 1990s things became far more competitive, with Acer Laboratories (ALI), SIS and VIA Technologies all developing chipsets designed to operate with Intel, AMD and Cyrix processors. 1998 was a particularly important year in chipset development, with what had become an unacceptable bottleneck - the PC's 66MHz system bus - to finally being overcome. Interestingly, it was not Intel but rival chipmakers that made the first move, pushing Socket 7 chipsets to 100MHz. Intel responded with its 440BX, one of many chipsets to use the ubiquitous Northbridge/Southbridge architecture. It was not long before Intel's hold on the chipset market loosened further still, and again, the company had no-one but itself to blame. In 1999, its single-minded commitment to Direct Rambus DRAM (DRDRAM) left it in the embarrassing position of not having a chipset that supported the 133MHz system bus speed its latest range of processors were capable of. This was another situation it's rivals were able to exploit, and in so doing gain market share.
The following charts the evolution of Intel chipsets over the years, from the time of it's first Triton chipset. During this time there have also been a number of special chipsets optimised for the Pentium Pro or designed for use with notebook PCs.
Introduced in early 1995, the 82430FX - to give it its full name - was Intel"s first Triton chipset and conformed to the PCI 2.0 specification. It introduced support for EDO memory configurations of up to 128MB and for pipelined burst cache and synchronous cache technologies. However, it did not support a number of emerging technologies such as SDRAM and USB and was superseded in 1996 - little more than a year after its launch - by a pair of higher performance chipsets.
The Triton 430VX chipset conforms to the PCI 2.1 specification, and is designed to support Intel"s Universal Serial Bus (USB) and Concurrent PCI standards. With the earlier 430FX, a bus master (on the ISA or PCI bus), such as a network card or disk controller, would lock the PCI bus whenever it transferred data in order to have a clear path to memory. This interrupted other processes, and was inefficient because the bus master would never make full use of the 100 MBps bandwidth of the PCI bus. With Concurrent PCI, the chipset can wrest control of the PCI bus from an idle bus master to give other processes access on a timeshare basis. Theoretically, this should allow for data transfer rates of up to 100 MBps, 15% more than the 430FX chipset, and smooth intensive PCI tasks such as video playback when bus masters are present.
The 430VX chipset was aimed fairly and squarely at the consumer market. It was intended to speed up multimedia and office applications, and it was optimised for 16-bit. Furthermore, it was designed to work with SDRAM, a special type of memory that"s optimised for intensive multimedia processing. Although the performance gains are slight for this type of RAM over EDO RAM, the advantage is that it can operate efficiently from a single Dual In-line Memory Module (DIMM) and does not need to be paired.
The 430VX provided improved EDO memory timings which was supposed to allow cacheless systems to be built without compromising performance, at least compared to a PC with asynchronous cache. In practice, though, most manufacturers continued to provide at least some secondary cache, with most using synchronous cache to maximise performance.
The Triton 430HX chipset is geared towards business machines and was developed with networking, video conferencing and MPEG video playback in mind. It supports multiple processors, has been optimised for 32-bit operation and to work with large memory arrays (up to 512MB) and provides error control (ECC) facilities on the fly when 32-bit parity SIMMs are used. The 430HX does not support SDRAM.
The biggest difference between the HX and VX chipsets is the packaging. Where the VX consists of four separate chips, all built using the traditional plastic quad flat packaging, the HX chipset comprises just two chips, the 82439HX System Controller (SC), which manages the host and PCI buses, and the 82371SB PIIX3 for the ISA bus and all the ports.
The SC comes in a new ball grid array (BGA) packaging which reduces overall chip size and makes it easier to incorporate onto motherboard designs. It exerts the greatest influence on the machine"s CPU performance, as it manages communications between the CPU and memory. The CPU has to be fed data from the secondary cache as quickly as possible, and if the necessary data isn"t already in the cache, the SC fetches it from main memory and loads it into the cache. The SC also ensures that data written into cache by the CPU is "flushed" back into main memory.
The PIIX3 chip manages the many processes involved in getting data into and out of RAM from the other devices in the PC. It provides two EIDE channels, both of which can accept two drives. IDE drives contain most of the controlling circuitry built into the hard disk itself, so the PIIX is mainly responsible for shifting data from the drives into RAM and back as quickly as possible. It also provides two 115,200bit/s buffered serial ports, an error correcting Enhanced Parallel Port, a PS/2 mouse port and a keyboard controller. The PIIX also supports additional connections that many motherboards have yet to adopt as the norm, such as a Universal Serial Bus connector and an infrared port.
The Triton 430TX includes all the features found on the earlier chipsets, including Concurrent PCI, USB support, aggressive EDO RAM timings and SDRAM support and is optimised for MMX processors and is designed to be used in both desktop and mobile computers.
The Triton 430TX also continues the high-integration two-chip BGA packaging first seen with the 430HX chipset, comprising the 82439TX System Controller (MTXC) and the 82371AB PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator (PIIX4). The former integrates the cache and main memory DRAM control functions and provides bus control to transfers between the CPU, cache, main memory, and the PCI Bus. The latter is a multi-function PCI device implementing a PCI-to-ISA bridge function, a PCI IDE function, a Universal Serial Bus host/hub function, and an Enhanced Power Management function.
The diagram below provides an overview of the overall architecture and shows the division of functionality between the System Controller and the Peripheral Bus Controller components - which are often referred to as "Northbridge" and "Southbridge" chipsets respectively.
The TX incorporates the Dynamic Power Management Architecture (DPMA) which reduces overall system power consumption and offers intelligent power-saving features like suspend to RAM and suspend to disk. The TX chipset also supports the new Ultra DMA disk protocol which enables a data throughput of 33 MBps from the hard disk drive to enhance performance in the most demanding applications.
The 440LX (by this time Intel had dropped the term "Triton") was the successor to the Pentium Pro 440FX chipset and was developed by Intel to consolidate on the critical success of the Pentium II processor launched a few months earlier. The most important feature of the 440LX is support for the Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP), a new, fast, dedicated bus designed to eliminate bottlenecks between the CPU, graphics controller and system memory, which will aid fast, high-quality 3D graphics.
Other improvements with the LX are more like housekeeping, bringing the Pentium II chipset up to the feature set of the 430TX by providing support for SDRAM and Ultra DMA IDE channels. The chipset includes the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), allowing quick power down and up, remote start-up over a LAN for remote network management, plus temperature and fan speed sensors. The chipset also has better integration with the capabilities of the Pentium II, such as support for dynamic execution and processor pipelining.
The 440EX AGPset, based on the core technology of the 440LX AGPset, is designed for use with the Celeron family of processors. It is ACPI-compliant and extends support for a number of advanced features such as AGP, UltraDMA/33, USB and 66MHz SDRAM, to the "Basic PC" market segment.
The PC's system bus had been a bottleneck for too long. Manufacturers of alternative motherboard chipsets had made the first move, pushing Socket 7 chipsets beyond Intel's 66MHz. Intel's response came in April 1998, with the release of its 440BX chipset, which represented a major step in the Pentium II architecture. The principal advantage of the 440BX chipset is support for a 100MHz system bus and 100MHz SDRAM. The former 66MHz bus speed is supported, allowing the BX chipset to be used with older (233MHz-333MHz) Pentium IIs.
The 440BX chipset features Intel's Quad Port Acceleration (QPA) to improve bandwidth between the Pentium II processor, the Accelerated Graphics Port, 100-MHz SDRAM and the PCI bus. QPA combines enhanced bus arbitration, deeper buffers, open-page memory architecture and ECC memory control to improve system performance. Other features include support for dual processors, 2x AGP, and the Advanced Configuration Interface (ACPI).
The 440ZX is designed for lower cost form factors without sacrificing the performance expected from an AGPset, enabling 100MHz performance in form factors like microATX. With footprint compatibility with the 440BX, the 440ZX is intended to allow OEMs to leverage BX design and validation investment to produce new systems to meet entry level market segment needs.
Released at the same time as the Pentium II Xeon processor in mid-1998, the 440GX chipset was an evolution of the 440BX AGPset intended for use with Xeon-based workstations and servers. Built around the core architecture of its 440BX predecessor, the 440GX includes support for both Slot 1 and Slot 2 implementations, a 2x AGP expansion slot, dual CPUs and a maximum of 2GB of memory.
Importantly, the chipset supports full speed backside bus operation, enabling the Pentium II Xeon's Level 2 cache to run at the same speed as the core of the CPU.
Released at the same time as the 440GX, the 450NX chipset has been designed for the server market and has a number of additional features. The most obvious is the introduction of 64-bit PCI slots. This is made possible by the addition of a second PCI bridge chip to the motherboard, capable of supporting either six 32-bit slots, three 64-bit slots or a mixture of the two. These new slots are intended for high-bandwidth devices such as network and RAID cards. The 450NX also supports 1- to 4-way processor operation, up to 8GB of memory for high-end servers and 4-way memory interleaving, providing up to 1 GBps of memory bandwidth.
Posted 08 August 2002 - 12:29 PM
Formerly codenamed "Whitney", the 810 AGPset finally reached the market in the summer of 1999. It is a three-chip solution comprising the 82810 Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH), 82801 I/O Controller Hub (ICH) and 82802 Firmware Hub (FWH) for storing the system and video BIOS. A break from tradition is that these components don't communicate with each other over the PCI bus. Instead, they use a dedicated 8-bit 266 MBps proprietary bus, thereby taking load off the PCI subsystem. The SDRAM memory interface is also unusual in that it runs at 100MHz irrespective of the system bus speed. There's no ISA support, but it could be implemented if a vendor added an extra bridge chip.
At the time of its launch, there were two versions of the 810 - the 82810 and 81810-DC100. The former is is 66MHz part with no graphics memory, while the latter is a 100MHz-capable chip with support for 4MB of on-board graphics memory. The Direct AGP graphics architecture uses 11MB of system memory for frame buffer, textures and Z-buffer if no display cache is implemented. This drops to 7MB if the display cache is implemented. The whole configuration is known as Direct Video Memory technology. Also incorporated in the chipset is an AC-97 CODEC, which allows software modem and audio functionality. Vendors can link this to an Audio Modem Riser (AMR) slot to facilitate future plug-in audio or modem upgrades.
In the autumn of 1999 a subsequent version of the chipset - the 810E - extended support processors with a 133 MHz system bus. The Intel 810E chipset features a unique internal gear arbitration, allowing it to run seamlessly with 66 MHz, 100 MHz and 133 MHz processor busses.
As the cost of processors come down, the marginal costs of the motherboard, graphics and sound subsystems becomes an increasingly important factor in vendors' efforts to hit ever-lower price points. However, high levels of integration can be a double-edged sword: it reduces vendors' bill-of-materials (BOM) costs, but also limits their capability for product differentiation. Many manufacturers defer their decisions on graphics and sound options to late in the production cycle in order to maintain a competitive marketing advantage. Given that other highly integrated solutions - such as Cyrix's Media GX - haven't fared particularly well in the past, the 810 AGPset represents a bold move on Intel's part and one that signals the company's determination to capture a greater share of the "value PC" market which had been effectively ceded to AMD and Cyrix over the prior couple of years.
Originally scheduled to be available concurrently with the Pentium III processor in the spring of 1999, Intel's much delayed 820 chipset was finally launched in November that year. Those delays - which had left Intel in the position not having a chipset that supported the 133MHz system bus speed their latest range of processors were capable of - were largely due to delays in the production of Direct Rambus DRAM (DRDRAM), a key component in Intel's 133MHz platform strategy.
Direct RDRAM memory provides a memory bandwidth capable of delivering 1.6 GBps of maximum theoretical memory bandwidth - twice the peak memory bandwidth of 100MHz SDRAM systems. Additionally, the 820's support for AGP 4x technology allows graphics controllers to access main memory at more than 1 GBps - twice that of previous AGP platforms. The net result is the significantly improved graphics and multimedia handling performance expected to be necessary to accommodate future advances in both software and hardware technology.
The 820 chipset employs the Accelerated Hub Architecture that is offered in all Intel 800 series chipsets - the first chipset architecture to move away from the traditional Northbridge /Southbridge design. It supports a bandwidth of 266 MBps and, with it's optimised arbitration rules which allow more functions to run concurrently, delivers significantly improved audio and video handling. The chipset's three primary components are:
- Memory Controller Hub
- I/O Controller Hub, and
- Firmware Hub.
The Memory Controller Hub provides a high-performance interface for the CPU, memory and AGP and supports up to 1GB of memory via a single channel of RDRAM using 64-, 128- and 256-Mbit technology. With an internal bus running at 1.6 GBps and an advanced buffering and queuing structure, the Memory Hub Controller balances system resources and enables concurrent processing in either single or dual processor configurations.
The I/O Controller Hub forms a direct connection from the PC's I/O devices to the main memory. This results in increased bandwidth and significantly reduced arbitration overhead, creating a faster path to main memory. To capitalise further on this faster path to main memory, the 820 chipset features an integrated AC97 controller in addition to an ATA66 drive controller, dual USB ports and PCI add-in cards.
The Firmware Hub stores system and video BIOS and includes a first for the PC platform - a hardware-based random number generator. The Intel RNG provides truly random numbers through the use of thermal noise - thereby enabling stronger encryption, digital signing and security protocols. This is expected to be of particular benefit to the emerging class of e-commerce applications.
The i820 hadn't long been on the market before Intel - recognising that the price of RDRAM was likely to remain high for sometime - designed and released an add-on chip, the 82805 Memory Translator Hub (MTH), which, when implemented on the motherboard, allowed the use of PC100 SDRAM. Sitting between the i820's Memory Controller Hub (MCH) and the RDRAM memory slots, the MTH chip translates the Rambus memory protocol that's used by RDRAM into the parallel protocol required by SDRAM, thereby allowing the i820 to use this much more price attractive memory.
Within a few months, a bug in the MTH component came to light. This was serious enough to cause Intel to recall all MTH-equipped i820-motherboards. Since it wasn't possible to replace the defective chip Intel took the extraordinary step of giving every owner of an MTH-equipped i820 motherboard a replacement non-MTH motherboard as well as RDRAM to replace the SDRAM that was used before!
The various problems that had so delayed the introduction of Direct Rambus DRAM (DRDRAM), finally resulted in Intel doing what it had been so reluctant to do for so long - release a chipset supporting PC133 SDRAM. In fact, in mid-2000, it announced two such chipsets - formerly codenamed "Solano" - the 815 Chipset and the 815E Chipset.
Both chipsets use Intel's Graphics and Memory Controller Hub (GMCH). This supports both PC133 and PC100 SDRAM and provides onboard graphics, with a 230MHz RAMDAC and limited 3D acceleration. This gives system integrators the option of using the on-board graphics - and system memory - for lower cost systems or upgrading via an external graphics card for either AGP 4x or AGP 2x graphics capabilities.
Additionally, and like the 820E Chipset before it, the 815E features a new I/O Controller Hub (ICH2) for greater system performance and flexibility. This provides an additional USB controller, a Local Area Network (LAN) Connect Interface, dual Ultra ATA /100 controllers and up to six-channel audio capabilities. Integrating a Fast Ethernet controller directly into the chipsets makes it easier for computer manufacturers and system integrators to implement cost-effective network connections into PCs. The ICH2's enhanced AC97 interface supports full surround-sound for Dolby Digital audio found on DVD and simultaneously supports a soft modem connection.
Designed in tandem with the Pentium 4 processor, Intel's 850 Chipset represents the next step in the evolution of the Intel Hub Architecture, the successor to the previous northbridge /southbridge technology first seen on the 810 Chipset. Comprising the 82850 Memory Controller Hub (MCH) and 82801BA I/O Controller Hub (ICH2), the new chipset's principal features are:
a 400MHz system bus
dual RDRAM memory channels, operating in lock step to deliver 3.2 GBps of memory bandwidth to the processor
support for 1.5V AGP4X technology, allowing graphics controllers to access main memory at over 1 GBps - twice the speed of previous AGP platforms
two USB controllers, doubling the bandwidth available for USB peripherals to 24 MBps over four ports
dual Ultra ATA/100 controllers support the fastest IDE interface for transfers to storage devices.
To ensure maximum performance, the system bus is balanced with the dual RDRAM channels at 3.2 GBps, providing 3x the bandwidth of platforms based on Intel III processors and allowing better concurrency for media-rich applications and multitasking.
The fact that system builders were obliged to use expensive DRDRAM - by virtue of the absence of any Pentium 4 chipsets supporting conventional SDRAM - had been an issue ever since the Pentium 4's launch at the end of 2000. The situation changed during the course of 2001, with chipmakers SiS and VIA both releasing Pentium 4 chipsets with DDR SDRAM
Posted 10 August 2002 - 09:06 AM
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