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Informasi Tentang SARS

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#1 mAnKuAnTaN


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Posted 05 April 2003 - 06:09 PM

Sedikit informasi mengenai SARS...

How SARS Works
by Katherine Neer

In February of 2003, newspapers began reporting a rapidly spreading atypical pneumonia. Now identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS, this highly contagious condition is making international news every day. As of April 3, 2003, an estimated 2,270 cases have been reported -- with a total of 79 deaths attributed to the syndrome. The reported cases break down like this:
Canada - 62 cases, 6 mortalities
China - 1190 cases, 46 mortalities
China (Hong Kong SAR) - 734 cases, 17 mortalities
China (Taiwan) - 14 cases, no mortalities
Singapore - 98 cases, 4 mortalities
United States - 85 cases, no mortalities
Viet Nam - 59 cases, 4 mortalities
Australia, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Ireland, Romania, Switzerland, Thailand, and the United Kingdom have all reported cases as well, but there are fewer than 10 incidents in each nation. For regularly updated information regarding the cumulative number of reported SARS cases, visit this WHO Web site .
In this edition of How Stuff Works, we'll examine the symptoms, the current treatment, and the communicability of SARS, and we'll find out what is being done to cure or at least control the condition.

First, let's take a look at what exactly scientists think SARS is.

Indications of Infection and Treatment
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as an "atypical pneumonia of unknown etiology." In other words, we know it's a form of pneumonia, but we don't yet know what causes it. Infectious disease experts, scientists, epidemiologists and other research specialists from all over the globe are working hard to change this. They're joining forces in an amazing way to solve the lethal riddle, as we'll see later on.

While the cause is still unclear, we do already know a lot about SARS. Here are the major known facts:

The incubation period ranges from 2 to 7 days. This means that once someone has been exposed, it can take anywhere from 2 to 7 days for symptoms to occur. Some authorities have reported incubation periods of 10 or even 14, but this is not the norm.

The initial indication of infection is a fever of 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit or more (38 degrees Celsius or more). Chills, headache, muscle soreness and a general feeling of discomfort are also common.

A dry, unproductive cough develops after 3 to 7 days. The cough can be accompanied by or eventually result in hypoxemia (a condition characterized by a reduced concentration of oxygen in the blood). Approximately 10 to 20% of infected patients require some type of assistance in breathing -- either through intubation or mechanical ventilation.
Without knowing the cause, it's difficult to pinpoint a cure. For now, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend that healthcare workers treat the symptoms of SARS in the same way they would handle any other unknown form of atypical pneumonia.

Although the effectiveness is uncertain, reported regimens include the administration of:

antiviral agents like oseltamivir or ribavirin
a combination of steroids and antimicrobials
Let's take a look at some possible causes of SARS.

Possible Cause(s)
Since SARS cases began popping up early this year, scientists from all over the world have been searching hurriedly for a cause. Though the condition is still a relative mystery, researchers have made some significant progress. According to the CDC, scientists have found a "previously unrecognized coronavirus in patients with SARS." This coronavirus is the leading contender in the list of possibilities.

Named for its distinguishing crown-like appearance, coronaviruses are commonly associated with upper-respiratory disease and have, on occasion, been connected to pneumonia. What makes this unusual is that in the previous cases of related pneumonia, many of the patients had weakened immune systems. Most SARS cases have been found in adults who were healthy prior to infection. And, while coronaviruses have been a known culprit in acute sickness among animals (such as dogs, cats and pigs), this has not been common among humans. Researchers are investigating the possibility that this coronavirus jumped between species.

This would not be the first time a disease has migrated from animal to man. All of these conditions were first evident in animals:

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (also known as Mad-Cow disease)
Ebola haemorrhagic disease
Nipah virus
Clinical research has also detected a paramyxovirus in specimens from patients infected with SARS. Among humans, viruses in this family cause conditions such as the mumps and measles.

The presence of these viruses is a pivotal clue in the SARS investigation, but researchers still have a long way to go. SARS could be connected to a completely new coronavirus, a new paramyxovirus, or possibly a previously identified paramyxovirus that's mutated into something new. It could even be a combination of the two viruses working together. Or it could be something entirely different.

Amidst all this uncertainty, there is something that we can count on: Scientists will continue to research SARS until we discover a cause and cure. For now, since there is no specific antiviral treatment, the most effective combatant is control. To curtail the spread of SARS, healthcare workers are adhering to strict safety procedures. But as we've seen, the condition has already spread around the world.

Let's look at how SARS has managed to move from continent to continent.

On the Move

Much like other respiratory illnesses, SARS seems to be spread by close contact. For example, a person infected with SARS could cough or sneeze, contaminating the immediately surrounding air with tiny droplets of infected matter. Someone in close proximity of the infected person could then breathe in air that has been contaminated. Because the cause of the SARS infection is yet unknown, scientists are considering other possibilities of communication. According to the CDC, "it is possible that SARS can also spread more broadly through the air or by touching an object that has been contaminated." A recent update on the WHO Web site addresses some other possibilities:

The SARS outbreak in Hong Kong SAR has developed an unusual pattern of transmission. This pattern is different from what is being seen in the vast majority of other SARS outbreaks, and is not yet fully understood. The number of cases is continuing to increase significantly, and there is evidence that the disease has spread beyond the initial focus in hospitals.
These developments raise questions related to other routes of transmission, in addition to well-documented face-to-face exposure to droplets released when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Epidemiologiests are considering whether SARS is being transmitted in Hong Kong by some environmental means for which no satisfactory explanation has been found.

To illustrate the communicability of SARS, consider this: According to the New York Times, as of March 29th, 249 individual cases of SARS could all be traced to one man. That's an incredible amount of people infected by one person. Of those infected, 214 were medical personnel or health-care workers.

Both the CDC and the WHO are working hard to reduce the spread of SARS by informing healthcare workers and the general public about the condition. Some of the recommendations for medical personnel in direct contact with SARS patients are:

Follow standard precautions (like hand hygiene).
Wear N-95 respirators (not face-masks).
Wear a disposable gown and gloves, removing and replacing soiled items regularly.
Wear eye protection
SARS patients and the family members and healthcare workers in contact with them should take precautionary measures for at least 10 days after SARS symptoms have passed. The CDC and the WHO recommend recovering patients and people in contact with them:

Wash and disinfect hands frequently.
Wear face masks when in close contact with others.
Avoid sharing household items like cutlery, bath towels, or bedding.
Regularly cleanse and disinfect household surfaces like sinks, toilets, and countertops.
Thoroughly launder and disinfect clothing and bedding.
For much more information, visit this page on the CDC site.

In the next section, we'll find out what else the CDC, WHO and other agencies are doing to handle the SARS threat.

Controlling the Situation

Global Think Tanks
The World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and many other organizations have brought hundreds of people together in an unprecedented effort to solve the SARS mystery. According to this page on the WHO site, the WHO collaborative network of clinicians for SARS diagnosis and treatment (Canada, Germany, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom and Viet Nam) is responsible for:

compiling case management data from all affected hospitals
comparing findings, including clinical, laboratory and x-ray results
developing a working archive of x-ray images to be used in comparative studies
updating the case definition and developing suggestions for clinical diagnosis
creating treatment recommendations, including discharge criteria
On March 17th, an international research network was created to bring together the resources of 11 top-level labs in 10 countries. Researchers in these labs are studying information from the collaborative network of clinicians. As a result, scientists have been able to develop two diagnostic tests. An antibody test and an immunofluorescent test have been created to look for the coronavirus that may cause SARS. These tests are still in the preliminary stages, and they will have to be investigated further for accuracy. But the research is definitely a step in the right direction.

Travel Advisory
According to a recent press release, WHO now recommends that individuals should suspend travel to Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Guangdong Province of China, unless it is absolutely necessary.

This is the first time in at least 12 years (and possibly ever) that the World Health Organization (WHO) has made this sort of recommendation because of a disease.

WHO regularly makes travel recommendations to curtail the infection of travelers by posting alerts in regard to various areas, regions and countries. Usually, the organization provides information regarding vaccinations. Because there is no vaccination or even any definitive medicinal treatment for SARS at this time, the World Health Organization really has no other choice but to advise travelers to avoid the area entirely.

The CDC and WHO continue to update their Web sites with valuable information about SARS and other infectious diseases. For more information on SARS and related topics, check out the links on the following page.

#2 minhaj


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Posted 06 April 2003 - 08:44 AM

semalam je....
kalau tak silap dalam Buletin Utama TV3....
dinyatakan...dah cecah lebih kurang 73 kes setakat ni yg disyaki menghidap SARS....
dan seorang lelaki tua yg baru meninggal di negara kita ...disahkan menghidap SARS....

berhati-hati lah...

#3 mAnKuAnTaN


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Posted 06 April 2003 - 11:42 AM

minhaj: lelaki tua tu sebenarnya sakit jantung, bukan pasal SARS lar.. smile.gif dia meninggal kat HKL...

#4 Guest_sn0277_*

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Posted 10 April 2003 - 11:59 AM

Untuk mengelak dari penyakit berjangkit, baca
'SALAAMUN QAULAN MIRRABBIR RAHIM' 28 kali setiap hari semasa penyakit
berjangkit berterusa
Pls forward to all our muslims.
> > > > Thank You.
> > > >
> > > >
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > "Sebarkanlah ajaranku walau satu ayat pun"
> > > > (Sabda Rasulullah SAW)
> > > >
> > > > "Nescaya Allah memperbaiki bagimu amalan-amalanmu
> > dan mengampuni bagimu
> > > > dosa-dosamu. Dan barangsiapa mentaati Allah dan
> > Rasul-Nya, maka
> > > > sesungguhnya ia telah mendapat kemenangan yang
> > besar."
> > > > (Surah Al-Ahzab:71) smile.gif

#5 Guest_paksi_*

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Posted 12 April 2003 - 11:00 PM

juga termasuk dlm langkah berjaga2..

jgn pergi ke hospital yg menguruskan kes SARS cam HKL dan HUKM.. spital lain aku tak pasti.. dan kalau buleh gunakan lah topeng doktor bedah tuh..

#6 alhakimie

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Posted 13 April 2003 - 02:26 PM

SARS Expectations
From Bob Lee

Hai Jeff?.

Saya menulis supaya pembaca dapat menjangka apa yang bakal menimpa apabila krisis SRAS membuka rupanya. Bersama ini saya bekalkan beberapa tarikh dan julat yang dijangkiti yang diringkaskan yang melibatkan perkiraan model Matematik.

1. Jangkakan yang jumlah seluruh dunia dijangkiti SARS melepasi 3,000 antara 8 April hingga 12 April.

2. Jangkakan jumlah itu melepasi 4,000 antara 11 hingga 16 April.

3. Jangkakan jumlah dijangkiti akan melebihi 5,000 antara 15 hingga 19 April.

4. jangkakan jumlah jangkitan melebihi angka 6,000 antara 18 hingga 22 April.

5. Melepasi 7,000 antara 21 hingga 25 April.

6. Melepasi 8,000 antara 23 hingga 27 April.

7. Melepasi 9,000 antara 27 hingga 29 April.

8. Melepasi 10,000 antara 26 hingga 30 April.

Data di atas dihasilkan dengan menggunakan model Matematik. Model eksponential menggunakan eksponen 1.12 dan batas keyakinan 99 peratus sekitar angka jangkaan jangkitan seluruh dunia. Saya tidak mempunyai ide sama ada angka ini akan menjelma sebagai kenyataan kepada situasi ini. Harap-harapnya ia tidak berlaku. Namun untuk kamu dan pembaca bersiap-siaga, saya mahukan kamu semua memiliki data ini.

Sekiranya ia akan menghampiri dengan tepat, saya menjangkakan yang SARS akan menjadi lebih ?gegak dan gempita? daripada Perang Iraq kepada penghujung bulan ini.

Sekiranya angka ini tepat, ia menunjukkan yang model ini sebagai pemalar berguna untuk angka jangkitan pada masa depan, adalah berasas untuk menjangka:

1. Antara 6 hingga 10 Mei, bakal terdapat 20,000 kes seluruh dunia.

2. Antara 16 hingga 20 Mei bakal terdapat 40,000 kes seluruh dunia.

3. Pada penghujung Mei, dipercayai lebih 100,000 kes SARS seluruh dunia.

Bulan Mei akan menjadi masa menakutkan bagi dunia secara relatif kepada perkembangan pandemik (wabak pembawa maut) SARS.

Akan terdapat impak yang hebat pada bulan Mei merujuk kepada scenario di atas terhadap pelancongan, perniagaan dan keselamatan nasional beberapa Negara.

Mulai Mei, sekiranya ia menjadi serius, ia akan bakal menjadi serius selepas itu.

Laporan berbagai sumber mencadangkan yang pandemik bakal menjelma.

Sebagai contohnya, ?Malangnya keadaan epidemik itu bakal menjadi pandemik,? ramal Donald Low, Ketua Mikrobiologis di Mount Sinai Hospital Toronto.

Sumber: http://www.centredaily.com/mld/centredaily...ews/5552879.htm

Namun satu lagi sumber memberi pendapat:-

?Adalah terlalu awal untuk memberitahu sama ada penyakit baru saluran pernafasan itu akan merebak ke tahap pandemic, tetapi ia memerlukan nasib yang cukup baik untuk mengawalnya sekarang, kata Pengarah Pusat Kawalan Penyakit dan Pencegahan CDC menurut Associated Press hari ini. ?dalam satu arahan eksekutif yang ditandatangani Bush pada Jumaat lalu,

Bush menambah SARS ke dalam senarai penyakit yang pihak berkuasa mempunyai hak mengkuarantin secara paksa warga Amerika.

Ini adalah kali pertama penyakit baru ditambah le dalam senarai itu dalam dua dekad. ?sekiranya tersebar ke dalam populasi,? kata arahan itu,

SARS ?akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada kesihatan masyarakat.?

Saya menyediakan data ini kepada anda Jeff supaya dengan itu pembaca dapat secara berkesan menghadam maklumat yang dipersembahkan WHO dan CDC

seperti sumber: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2.../4/174732.shtml

Dan membandingkan dengan angka sebenar daripada berbagai pertubuhan kepada model di atas untuk memudahkan kita menjangka akan berlakunya pandemic.

Sekiranya pada 22 April, kita melihat lebih daripada 6,000 orang dijangkiti SARS seluruh dunia, berkemungkinan besar kita menuju kepada pandemic.

Sebaliknya jika pada tarikh itu, kita melihat angka yang berlegar sekitar 4,000 atau kurang, kita boleh menarik nafas panjang yang ia mencerminkan segala usaha mengawal SARS berjaya dan pandemik telah dielakkan.

Walaupun masih terdapat epidemic di rantau tertentu, pandemic sejagat tidak akan mudah berlaku.

Terima kasih Jeff atas perkhidmatan Saudara untuk semua.

#7 Guest_guardmax_*

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Posted 13 April 2003 - 03:08 PM

takutnya aku dengan benda ni....bahaya ni...dah lah kat sarawak ada disyaki SARS.....better berhati-hati...

#8 Guest_sn0277_*

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Posted 14 April 2003 - 09:25 AM

aku rasa ini adalah bala yang diturunkan oleh tuhan kita......TAKUTNYA......... sad.gif so perbanyakkan amalan kita semoga selamat dunia akhirat.....

#9 mystique_nw

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Posted 29 April 2003 - 12:28 PM

what is sars??
plural bagi sekolah agama rakyat(sar)??!!....

~huhu ::: just joking....

#10 alhakimie

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Posted 30 April 2003 - 08:39 AM

PADA 29 APRIL 2003


1. Menurut laporan yang dikeluarkan oleh Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia(WHO) melalui laman webnya (http://www.who.int/csr/sarscountry) pada 28 April 2003, memaklumkan bahawa sehingga 28 April 2003, sejumlah 5050 kes SARS telah dilaporkan kepada organisasi tersebut dengan 321 kematian.  Bilangan pertambahan kes adalah 214 dan kematian seramai 28 orang.
Agihan Kes baru dan Kematian yang dilaporkan pada 28.04.2003 


Bil Nama, Negara, Kes Baru, Kematian
1.China 161 9
2.Hong Kong, 30 17
3.Taiwan 17

4.Singapore 1 2
5.Italy 4
6.Malaysia 1

Jumlah 214 28


#11 ptit

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Posted 30 April 2003 - 01:14 PM

SARS ialah Seat And Relax Syndrome laugh.gif laugh.gif laugh.gif laugh.gif

#12 Guest_manteros_*

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Posted 04 May 2003 - 09:04 PM

SARS = Sakit Angau Rasa Syok

#13 tena_79

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Posted 06 May 2003 - 09:54 AM


Don't be out of topic korg... smile.gif3

#14 ptit

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Posted 06 May 2003 - 10:10 AM


rilex la tena.....kitaorang pun bincang pasal SARS gak.......but in other side......tajuk pun kata apa itu SARS????

#15 tena_79

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Posted 06 May 2003 - 10:24 AM


rilex la tena.....kitaorang pun bincang pasal SARS gak.......but in other side......tajuk pun kata apa itu SARS????

Dah tuko tajuk dah 8) ...............

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Posted 08 May 2003 - 06:15 PM


Untuk makluman dan renungan semua.
Prof. Madya Dr. Wan Ramle Wan A.Kadir. PMC.
Lecturer in Environmental Technology
Phone: 03 5544 4549 Fax:03 5544 3423
Asm, to All Muslim who belief in Allah.......only......

I was asked to convey this penawar for you and family.. insya

1. Sediakan air minum untuk satu famili cukup untuk diminum
dalam 7 hari
2. Astaghfar 3x
3. Salawat kepada Nabi 3x
4. Baca, al Fatihah 7x ditiup kedalam air
5. Baca, Salamunkaulam mirrabir rahiim 28x ditiup kedalam air
6. Baca, Ya Allah ya khabir, 7x ditiup kedalam air
7. Berdoalah.
8. Bertawakkallah, insya Allah.
Panjangkanlah penawar ini kepada semua orang islam yang percaya

#17 Guest_manteros_*

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Posted 09 May 2003 - 01:08 AM

biar betul nie effa007 dari mane dapat info nie......

#18 Guest_effa007_*

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Posted 09 May 2003 - 12:53 PM

ntah la.. tatau betul ke tak. tapi.. rasanya ayat˛ kat atas tu mmg biasa pun kita amalkan. yang penting NIAT kita.. kepercayaan kita kepada Allah SWT.

#19 Guest_manteros_*

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Posted 10 May 2003 - 07:13 PM

kalo kita percaya kepada Allah n senantiasa mengingati Nya maybe semua penyakit boleh d ubat bak kata org sarawak "arum bulaknya" suma penyakit boleh d ubati kalo kiter percaya kepada Allah SWT

#20 Guest_manteros_*

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Posted 11 May 2003 - 11:52 AM

kat sarawak ni heboh mengenai kacang hijau yang boleh mengubati penyakit SARS nie
cite dia cam nie.......
aku dengar lah... dia org cakap ader bayi yang baru dilahirkan pada hari Rabu then meninggal pada hari Khamis masa nak meninggal tu bayi ni pandai bercakap n memberitahu pada emak nya sebelumnya meninggal dia menasihatkan emaknya supaya makanla kacang hijau untuk menghindari penyakit SARS
tak tahu lak kalo cite ni bena atau tak tetapi ade kawan aku yang sorg lagi cakap kat Miri n Bintulu kacang hijau dah habis d jual ish ish ish...
then ader yang cakap org dari cina menelefon untuk mengetahui kesahihan citer ni hmmm betul ker....
apa yang aku citer ni saje nak aku sampaikan bukannya tak percaya tetapi da suma org menghebohkan maka aku citerkanlah....

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